Adjustment computations and reliability analysis in land surveying
Study plans 2016-2017 - GEO2151 - 10 ECTS

Expected learning outcomes

In the end of this course, the student should be able to:

  • Understand and explain the main principles og least squares adjustment
  • Use the most common Norwegian sotwares for adjustment computations for levelling-, GNSS- and total station observations
  • Understand an explain relevant Norwegian standards for adjustment computations and corresponding documentation
  • Do adjustment in practice on a given dataset
  • Assess the quality of observations, background data and the outcoming results of an adjustment
  • Deliver professional reports of adjustment computations



 - Introduction/repetition of linear algebra
 - Least squares adjustment (the parameter method)
 - Development og error equations for  leveoobservatio types levelling, total station, GNSS baseline, GNSS point observation
 - Weight functions for the same observation types as above
 - The theory behind multiple t-test, Chi-square test, F-test, confidence intervals, inner and outer reliability
 - Adjustment computations by means of the most common Norwegian softwares and corresponding Norwegian standards
 - Additional parameters in least squares adjustment (scale, rotation and deflection of the vertical)
 - Simulation and planning of reference point measurement

Teaching Methods

Group works

Form(s) of Assessment

Oral exam, individually

Form(s) of Assessment (additional text)

  •  Assignsments (60%)
  •  Oral exam (40%)
  •  Both assignments and exam must be passed to pass the course

Assigments: 4 assignmentsm which can be delivered individually or in group. All assignments must be passed. The assignsment grade is based on all 4 assisgnments, which counts 60% of the total course grade.

Assignsments that is not passed can be granted another delivery after appointment with teacher.

Grading Scale

Alphabetical Scale, A(best) – F (fail)

External/internal examiner

Two sencors from GUC

External sencors are being used periodically, next time spring 2020.

Re-sit examination

Oral exams that is not passed can be granted another attempt after appoint with teacher.

Coursework Requirements

The course work requirements must be conducted on campus NTNU in Gjøvik. Time of completion given at semester start. The students must deliver and passe 4 assignments before they are permitted for exam. 

Teaching Materials

 - Since the course relies heavily on Norwegian professional standards and the Norwegian variant of least squares adjustment and associated statistical tests, all the written course material is also in Norwegian.
 - Skogseth, T. (2014). Grunnleggende landmåling. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget (ISBN: 978-82-05-44934-3). 
 - Instrument- og programvaremanualer (oppdateres jevnlig på nett eller som innebygde systemhjelpfiler)
 - HiG: Egne kompendier og notater i utjevningslære, analyse, datum, transformasjoner (oppdateres jevnlig)
 - Kartverket (2005). Geodatastandarden (oppdateres ved
 - Kartverket (2009). Grunnlagsnettstandarden (oppdateres ved
 - Kartverket (2009). Satellittbasert posisjonsbestemmelse (oppdateres ved
 - Kartverket (2011). Stedfesting av matrikkelenhets- og råderettsgrenser (oppdateres ved
 - Kartverket (2009). Koordinatbasert referansesystem (oppdateres ved