BSc Radiography -

Short description

The study programme is based on the "General Plan and Regulations for the 3-year Training Programme in Radiography" (1997) and qualifies for authorisation as radiographer as well as Bachelor's degree.

As a fully trained radiographer you are able to obtain information about the human body through suitable imaging devices in order to diagnose or treat illness and suffering. Radiographers are to attend to the patient and base her/his professional practice on the basic values, tradition and the professional code of ethics of the radiography profession.

The radiography profession includes knowledge about medical-diagnostic review and treatment based on image-diagnostic equipment for and knowledge about radiation therapy and nuclear-medical diagnostics and treatment.
The image-diagnostic equipment and the accompanying image aquisition methods that are applied are often divided into so-called various modalities. Examples of modalities are CT, MR, general X-ray, mammography, radiotherapy, ultrasound, interventional therapeutic procedures etc. A high level of knowledge about a medical use of radiation and radiation protection is a prerequisite. The radiographic profession also includes a caring function, both as a value-oriented, theoretical and a practical skills concept.

We especially focus on 2 subject areas (the profession’s subject profile):
•    Emergency situations at radiographic departments. This is achieved by, among other things, an extensive use of simulation training.
•    Digital image processing. This includes image analysis, optimization and processing.

We emphasize learning methods that promote independence, responsibility, critical reflection and ability to change. The student participates actively in modeling the study programme, which in turn promotes the student’s ability and will to cooperate with others. We work in close collaboration with the practical placement field, other programmes and professional communities nationally and internationally.

The course of study is divided into eight theoretical modules and six supervised practical placement periods. The practice periods are spread over all three years of study. Clinical practice amounts to altogether 60 credits. As a rule we use problem-based learning as our pedagogical method.
1. year of study’s main topic is Basic knowledge in radiography and consists of the courses 1 and 2, as well as practice period 1.
2. year of study’s main topic is Modalities for diagnostics and treatment, and consists of the courses 3-6, and practice periods 2 and 3.
3. year of study’s main topic is Oncology, professional subject development and an in-depth study of radiography, and consists of the courses 7 and 8, and practice periods 4-6.

Duration

This study programme is a full-time, first degree in radiography with 3 years as the nominal length of study. The scope is 180 credits. The programme is awarded a Bachelor of Radiography, and qualifies for authorization as a Radiographer pertaining to the Act of July 2. 1999 nr. 64 about Health Personnel and so on (The Health Personnel Act) with accompanying Regulations as of January 1. 2001.
The programme description is in accordance with the National Curriculum for Radiography Education as of December 1. 2005, laid down by the Ministry of Education and Research.

Expected learning outcomes

Students will be trained to become reflective and responsible radiographers who have a holistic view of human beings, to show respect for the integrity and rights of human beings, and to ensure the autonomy of the patient. The radiographer shall perform his/her work in an ethically justifiable way, independently and in collaboration with others. He/she shall have a professional competence that implies planning and performing image-diagnostic procedure and treatments, as well as handling image material in accordance with referral and the problem to be addressed.

Knowledge
After completing the course, students will be able to:

  • Have knowledge about human beings of all ages with various degrees of health, illness and handicaps in accordance with requirements for reasonable professional practice.
  • Have knowledge and competence in performing procedures and treatment by using various modalities in radiation therapy and radiography.
  • Understand, explain and act according to the somatic and genetic injury that medical use of ionizing rays can lead to.
  • Understand, make use of and contribute to research, dissemination of results and development work nationally and internationally, as well as utilize research results in one’s professional practice.
  • Show understanding of the radiographer’s position in the health- and social sector as well as of relevant Acts, regulations and agreements.
  • Show knowledge about health- and social policies in a national and  international perspective, and how one can influence these policies.

Skills
After completing the course, students will be able to:

  • Handle sensitive medical information about the patient in accordance with current legislation.
  • Assess and administer medication used in professional practice and attend to principles of hygiene.
  • Present the optimal medical image for diagnostic purposes, and assess and verify image material in relation to the problem to be addressed.
  • Have emergency preparedness in relation to an emergency situation.
  • Organize one’s own work, work in interdisciplinary teams, and be able to lead others.
  • Supervise, teach and inform patients, next-of-kin, students as well as other health personnel.
  • Reflect over ethical issues, be prepared to act in an ethical way and be able to expose value conflicts on society level, in practical health work and in social work.
  • Practice the profession in accordance with current laws and regulations for ionizing rays.
  • Show understanding about the benefits and harm of different radioactive isotopes and deal with these in a safe and secure way.

General competence

  • After completing the course, students should be able to:
  • Perform care and welfare in an ethically responsible way for all patients who are being diagnosed or under treatment; the healthy, the acutely ill, the chronically ill, the seriously ill and for patients in the terminal phase, independent of the patient’s condition.
  • Carry out image-diagnostic procedures in relation to the issue at hand and on the basis of a holistic assessment of the condition of the patient.
  • Show a critical attitude to the possibilities and the limitations of technology in the encounter with human beings.
  • Show ability for critical reflection in the work.  Carry out a critical procedure of one’s own attitudes in relation to guidelines for the professional code of ethics for radiographers.
  • Update and develop procedures, methods and treatment within one’s profession (innovation). This is done in accord with medical, methodical, technical and sustainable development in cases where universal design is emphasized.
  • Contribute actively in quality assurance work, and show an understanding for and initiate quality controls.

Internationalization

The last and 6. semester of the programme opens up for internationalization. The arrangements are that students can do parts of their programme abroad as exhange students for a period of three months. It also allows for incoming exchange students from our partner institutions, who can take a module that will be taught in English only, so as to cater for the incoming students when they are present. Potential exchange students must have passed all exams and internal tests during the programme.

Target Group

Applicants with a Higher Education Entrance Qualification or prior learning and work experience. The course qualifies for admission to further education within the fields of radiography and radiotherapy.

Admission Criteria

Higher Education Entrance Qualification or prior learning and work experience. Read more here

Course Structure

The course of study is divided into eight theoretical courses/modules and six supervised practical placement periods. The practice periods are spread over all three years of study. Clinical practice amounts to altogether 60 credits. As a rule we use problem-based learning as our pedagogical method.
1. year of study’s main topic is Basic knowledge in radiography and consists of the modules 1 and 2, as well as practice period 1.
2. year of study’s main topic is Modalities for diagnostics and treatment, and consists of the modules 3-6, and practice periods 2 and 3.
3. year of study’s main topic is Oncology, professional subject development and an in-depth study of radiography, and consists of the modules 7 and 8, and practice periods 4-6.

Year 1
RAD 1041 Introduction to radiography, RAD 1051 Anatomy, physiology and microbiology
This topics gives students an insight into the subject of radiography and the professional practice, as well as an introduction to the student role. Some time in this module is set aside for GUC’s student buddy programme, which focuses on letting the students get to know the university college and fellow students. The module also gives an introduction to problem-based learning (PBL) as a pedagogical method. Subject/topics in this module are: Professional practice of radiography, the history of radiography, a short introduction to the philosophy of science and research, searching for literature, administrative levels and decision structures ( the structure of the National Health Service, the distribution of function and responsibility), PBL as a method of work, communication, interaction and conflict resolution, ethics, informations and communication technology (ICT), use of the computer as a tool, microbiology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, basic radiation physics, radiation protection and science of instrumentation.

RAD 1031 Basic knowledge of radiography, RPR 1011 Practical skills test in skeletal/thorax radiography and nursing procedures, and drug calculation
In this topics the students are to acquire an understanding of basic pathology, the science of diseases, theory about patient care and basic skills in relevant skeleton and thorax procedures, as well as procedures for nursing. One expects the student himself to take the initiative to practice procedures and skills that have been presented. Students will prepare a book of procedures for later use/for testing in clinical practice. Subjects/topics in this module are: ethics, psychology, patient care and nursing, general pathology and pharmacology, handling of medication and arithmetic/drug calculation skills, the science of contrast mediums, pathology in circulation, respiration, orthopedics and auto-immune diseases, procedures in skeleton, thorax, radiation physics, the science of instrumentation, basic principles of radiography, radiation protection, introduction to digital images and image criteria, documentation and quality control.

Practice 1
During this practice period half of the class will be in clinical practice at somatic wards, while half of the class will be in general radiography at radiological departments.

Year 2
RAD 2051 Topics of Radiation Science
During Module 3 students shall acquire insight into x-ray procedures, go deeper into the radiography profession and get an introduction to CT, as well as procedures related to x-ray procedures. The module also focuses on the professional code of ethics and on the encounter with patients of different backgrounds, age, sex and culture. In this module focus is also on digital image media and digital image. Subject/topics in this module are: pathology, the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and urinary tracts, contrast mediums, radiation physics, radiation protection, x-ray procedures, exposure techniques, information technology in the health service, the science of instrumentation, basic principles for CT, the function of the radiographer in x-ray and CT-procedures, image presentation, psychological topics, professional code of ethics, relevant legislation and regulations and interdisciplinary cooperation, , analysis of scientific papers, statistics and method, traumatology and the special patient challenges one can encounter performing procedures with CT.

Practice period 2
During this practice period half of the class will be in clinical practice at somatic wards, while half of the class will be in general radiography at radiological departments.

RAD 2061 Magnetic Resonance (MR)
RAD 2061 consists of topics related to the modality MR. Subject/topics in this module are: the structure of the MR-equipment, mode of operation and image formation, the radiograph’s realm of work, anatomy, pathology/diagnostics, contrast mediums, image presentation, image analysis and methodical techniques, performing biopsies, intervention by MR, the professional role and interdisciplinary cooperation, quality development

Practice 3
In this practice period students will experience different modalities like CT, MR, mammography, nuclear medicine and general radiography in Departments of radiology.

RAD 2031 Intervention and ultrasound procedures
This module consists of intervention and ultrasound. The module deals with the tasks of a radiographer in relation to performing procedures and treatments of a vascular and a non-vascular nature. Subject/topics in this module are: interventional procedures, image formation and image processing, administration of medicines and contrast mediums, hygienic and sterile procedures, diagnostics and anatomy/physiology, pathology, teamwork, physics and the science of instrumentation as well as interventional procedures using ultrasound.

RAD 2041 Philosophy of science and research methods
The module focuses on the place of science in professional knowledge and professional development. The student shall develop the ability to apply various research methods, and also learn to document and develop a critical and analytic relationship to the theoretical and practical sides of radiography. Relevant topics are theory of science and technology, qualitative and quantitative research methods, research processes, scientific documentation, evaluation of topics in health science, research ethics and ethics of science.

Year 3
Practice period 4
In this practice period students will experience different modalities like CT, MR, mammography, nuclear medicine and general radiography in Departments of radiology.

RAD 3011 Oncology and accompanying modalities
This module deals with oncology and the modalities mammography, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, and the tasks of a radiographer in relation to these modalities. The module focuses on the medical, physical, technical and biological aspects that form the basis for planning and implementing radiotherapy. Furthermore, emphasis is on patient care in relation to the special needs of the oncological patient underway during the diagnosis and treatment. Topics/subjects in the module are: screening and clinical mammography, physics and the science of equipment, image presentation, patient care, oncology, radiobiology, radio-pharmacology, health-political policy priorities in society, quality development, diagnostics and ethics.

Practice 5
In this practice period students will experience different modalities like CT, MR, mammography, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, interventional and general radiography in Departments of radiology.

RAD 3911 Bachelor thesis in radiography
This module is divided into two, where the first part allows for student exchange. During the first three months of the module the course will be taught in English when necessary. The module focuses on aspects of the roles, duties and responsibilities of the radiographer in cooperation with the patient, individually and in the perspective of society. The student shall have a competence to deal with patient situations that do not go as planned. Subject/topics in this module are ethics, relevant legislation and regulations, the professional radiographer, the development of the welfare state, decision-making processes in the health and social sector, management, supervision, interdisciplinary cooperation, radiation protection in a societal perspective and areas of responsibility, procedure development, image quality, simulation and communication in challenging patient situations. The second part of the module is devoted to the Bachelor Thesis.

Practice period 6
In this practice period students will experience different modalities like CT, MR, mammography, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, interventional and general radiography in Departments of Radiology.

Practice period outline
Practice periods amount to 60 credits throughout the years of the course programme. Gjøvik University College has organized and planned for 6 practice periods. Practice period placements take place at radiological departments, centres of nuclear medicine, clinical- and radiotherapy departments. A plan for the practice period has been designed that among other things describes the learning outcome for the different practice periods, progression requirements and practical information.
During the practice periods students are supervised by a radiographer/nurse and by lecturers from the course programme. Students will have the different practice periods in somewhat different order, but all students will complete all the practice periods by the end of the course programme. Gjøvik University College locates its practice periods at Innlandet Hospital Trust with the exception of radiotherapy, which is mainly located in Oslo. All students must allow for practice at different hospitals. This means travel during many of the practice periods. All students will receive practice in general radiography, CT and radiotherapy. The remaining practice periods will in addition offer the special modalities MR, mammography, nuclear medicine, ultrasound and interventional radiology/cardiology. All students will receive practice in at least 2 of the special modalities.
Practice 1
10 credits
Supervised practice in clinical nursing or general radiology
RPR 2031, RPR 2041
Practice 2
10 credits
Supervised practice in clinical nursing or at radiological modalities RPR 2031, RPR 2041
Practice 3
10 credits
Radiological practice within all the modalities. Takes place during semester 4. RPR 2051
Practice 4
Radiological practice within all modalities. Takes place during semester 5. RPR 3031
Practice 5
Radiological practice within all modalities including radiotherapy. 2 credits during this practice period is clinical practice. Takes place during semester 5 and 6. Half the class will here have 3 weeks of radiotherapy practice. RPR 3041.
Practice 6
5 credits
Practice in the science of radiography. Takes place in semester 6. Half the class will here have 3 weeks of radiotherapy practice. RPR 3051.
Pedagogical methods
In line with the overriding goal of the programme to educate responsible, dynamic and reflected radiographers, emphasis is placed on the students’ self-activity. Therefore, the programme makes use of student active learning methods as main pedagogical method. Student active learning is characterized by students learning the profession while working with close-to-life tasks in groups. The teachers function as supervisors and resource persons/support persons emphasizing the students’ own learning. Students are expected to show responsibility for their own personal and professional development. This implies an active student involvement throughout the whole of the programme with discussion of both subject-specific and pedagogical sides of the programme. The programme shall make the student aware of the fact that competence is a product of knowledge and of one’s own experience through organizing and implementation of the work, the perception of roles and of attitudes.

Forms of work that are used:
• Group work. Students in the Programme of Radiography will be organized in basic units from the start of the programme. All groups will receive supervision. The groups will work both with the supervisor present in the group and with the supervisor available when needed. The basic units are formal cooperative groups that meet regularly and stay together throughout two modules. Work in the basic units will consist of situations that result in written tasks, seminars, dialogue and/or discussion about professional issues. In the basic units students shall acquire knowledge and skills that through processing and development become their own basis of knowledge and professional practice.
• Resource lectures give an outline and overview as well as issues for one’s own studies.
• Skills training is targeted at the practical part of the profession. This f. ex. implies: training in skills in the clinic laboratory and in the x-ray laboratory, skills training at the hospital’s radiological departments within different modalities. Skills training is necessary for the students to acquire basic skills and forms the basis for the students’ further qualification in these skills. 
• Seminars. Seminars will be held where the students are to present their knowledge to teachers and fellow-students, followed by feedback and discussions.
• Information and communication technology (ICT) are important in order to successfully complete the programme and in the professional performance of radiography. Gjøvik University College has chosen Fronter as its learning platform and all students will be users of this. This presupposes both knowledge about and techniques for collection of, critical selection of, processing, structuring and communicating information. It is therefore important that the student through the project assignment, use of computer systems and library services develop these skills.
• Self-study. High demands are expected of the students’ self-activity, and students are expected to work a full-time week with their studies, about 40 hours.
• Practice. The student shall experience hands-on practice on the spot at relevant locations. The purpose is for the student to get the opportunity to apply knowledge, incorporate skills and develop attitudes in line with the objectives of the programme for the individual practice period. GUC offers practice placement preferably at the Innlandet Hospital Trust , HF in the regional counties of Hedmark and Oppland. The student must be ready to travel to, and take residence at the practice location.
• Exams. Exams are, in addition to being a form of assessment, also an important learning arena. Through different kinds of exams, students are trained in written formulation and how to argue in a professional manner.

Mandatory attendance
Due to the use of student active learning model in the programme of radiography, parts of the scheduled work is mandatory. The reason is that students can hardly on their own acquire the knowledge, skills and attitudes that constitute this programme. At the conclusion of every course/module students must be able to verify that they have participated in at least 80% of mandatory teaching in order to sit for the following exam. In case of absence beyond 20%, the student must contact the person in charge of the module about how to catch up with the learning that was lost during the period of absence. The student is himself responsible for as soon as possible making an appointment with the teacher in charge and to enter into an agreement.

Forms of assessment
The forms of assessment shall:
• Ensure that students have acquired the necessary qualifications for professional practice and give reason for accreditation
• Show the students throughout the programme whether they hold a satisfactory professional standard, and stimulate to the best possible learning further on in the programme
• Contribute to the students participating actively in the assessment of the learning process and the study situation for their own sake and for that of their fellow-students, and through this train their ability for judgment with a view to future professional work.

The following forms of assessment will be used:
Exams
Students will be tested individually or in groups, and exams may consist of school exams, take-home exams, practical tests, practice, oral exams or portfolio assessment. Exams will be assessed as passed/failed or with the letters A-F.
Assessment of practice periods
The practice period studies shall be planned and goal-oriented, while the students’ learning at the same time is connected to the situation there and then during the practice period. The radiography progamme has drawn up specific learning objectives and distribution of responsibilities that are described in the Plan for Practice periods. Each practice period is considered to be an exam. All practice is obligatory and absence beyond 10% means a failed practice period. The learning that takes place at the respective practice locations is linked to the performance of the radiography profession itself and therefore difficult to acquire elsewhere. Practice will be assessed as passed/failed.
Portfolio assessment
The programme arranges for portfolio assessment during the first and third years of study. All student work must exist and be present in the portfolio by the scheduled date, cf. the exam plan.

Literature
The radiography programme does not have a set list of curriculum literature because it is important for the students throughout the whole programme to develop skills in the critical choice and assessment of relevant literature within the subject area in question. This is in line with the pedagogical method (PBL) where the focus is to promote students taking the responsibility for their own learning and developing a competence for action that they can utilize in their professional practice. A list of resource literature has been prepared with a view to the student himself being able to select relevant literature to achieve the objectives of the programme. This list exists on the home pages of GUC. Students will receive training in searching databases and in the use of the library. The person in charge of each module will supervise the students in how to select literature.

Suitability assessment
The radiography programme is subject to Regulations on Suitability Assessment in Higher Education. All students must hand in a National police certificate at the start of the programme.

Technical Prerequisites

The students will receive training in the use of Fronter. Tasks and home exams are to be handed in electronically, in pdf-format. Plagiary control will be performed. Students must have access to a PC with internet-connections.

Table of subjects

BSc Radiography 2010/2013

Coursecode Course name C/E *) ECTS each. semester
  S1(A) S2(S) S3(A) S4(S) S5(A) S6(S)
RAD1051 Anatomy, physiology and microbiology C 11          
RPR1011 Practical Test in Nursing Procedures and Basic Skeleton and thorax Radiography C   10        
RAD1031 Basic Knowledge in Radiography C   15        
RPR2031 Supervised Practicum in Clinical Nursing Care Practice 1 C   10        
RAD2051 Basic radiography C     15      
RPR2041 Supervised Practicum in Contrast, Chest and Skeletal Radiography C     10      
RAD2031 intervention and ultrasound C       10    
RAD2061 Computer tomography and Magnetic Resonans Imaging C       10    
RPR2051 Special Modalities, Computer Tomography (CT) and Skeletal in Practice 3 C       10    
RAD2041 Scientific theory and research method C       5    
RAD3011 Radiotheraphy and Oncology C         15  
RPR3031 Special Modalities, Computer Tomography (CT) and Skeletal in Practice 5. C         10  
RPR3041 Special Modalities, Computer Tomography (CT) and Skeletal in Practice 4 C         5 10
RAD3911 Main Project in Radiography C           15
RPR3051 Practise in Professional Practice in Radiography Practice 6 C           5
Sum: 25 35 25 35 30 30
*) C - Compulsory course, E - Elective course