Survey Adjustment Analysis
2014-2015 - GEO2151 - 10 ECTS


  • GEO1xxx Basic Surveying 1
  • GEO1201 Basic Surveying 2
  • GEO1xxx Basic Surveying 3 or REA2071 Mathematics 2 for mechanical and civil engineering

Expected learning outcomes

On completion of this course, students will have acquired a good practical understanding of the processes involved in adjusting networks of observations of different types using the Least Squares Method.

 Students will be able to:
 - Carry out a Least Squares Adjustment of a set of observations
 - Analyse the quality of the observations, of the available data, and of the results
 - Use the standard Norwegian network adjustment software systems
 - Use standard GPS-based network adjustment software systems
 - Deliver appropriate project reports in accordance with current professional standards.


 - Theory of Adjustment by the method of Least Squares
 - Formation of Observation Equations in different situations
 - Weighting of Observation Equations
 - Techniques for the solution of large sets of linear equation, including the use of simple matrix algebra
 - Detection of observational errors in control networks
 - Statistics, reliability testing, quality control and analysis
 - Reporting
 - Land survey software systems "GEMINI", "GISLINE" and "Leica Geo Office".
 - Analysis of Control Networks to develop transformation parameters
 - Simple network simulation computations and analysis

Teaching Methods

Group works

Form(s) of Assessment

Oral exam, individually

Form(s) of Assessment (additional text)

  •  Oral Exam, individually
  •  Evaluation of Project(s) (4)

Grading Scale

Alphabetical Scale, A(best) – F (fail)

External/internal examiner

 Delivered work is assessed by the responsible lecturer
 External moderators regularly assist in reviewing content and evaluating arrangements for grading assessments.

Re-sit examination

By agreement with the responsible lecturer

Coursework Requirements


Teaching Materials

 - Instrument og programvare manualer (oppdateres jevnlig på nett eller som innebygde systemhjelpfiler)
 - HiG: Egne kompendier og notater i utjevningslære, analyse, datum, transformasjoner (oppdateres jevnlig)
 - Statens kartverk (2005). Geodatastandarden (oppdateres ved
 - Statens kartverk (2001). Geodatastandarden, grunnlagsnett (oppdateres ved
 - Statens kartverk (2005). Satellittbasert posisjonsbestemmelse (oppdateres ved
 - Statens kartverk (1999). Stedfesting av eiendoms- og råderettsgrenser (oppdateres ved
 - Statens kartverk (2004). Koordinatbasert referansesystem (oppdateres ved

Additional information

 This subject is included in the following courses of study:
 - Bachelor of Geomatics
 - One-Year Course in Land Surveying