Scientific methods
2011-2012 - TØL4001 - 10 ECTS

Expected learning outcomes

After completing the course, the student is supposed to:


  • have deep knowledge about central questions within the theory of science
  • be able to analyze central topics within the theory of science


  • be able to suggest a topic of investigation within science
  • independently be able to make a plan of how to carry out a scientific work

General knowledge

  • be able to report results from scientific projects, including projects carried out by the student herself
  • have developed a clear ethical attitude in relation to how scientific methodology can be used to strive for a sustainable development of industry, the business world  and society


  • Introduction to the theory of science
  • Characteristics of good research
  • Research ethics
  • Research as a means of systematic progress
  • Quantitative and qualitative research designs
  • Characteristics of good research topics and how to create one
  • Literature studies
  • Choice of methods, including planning and how to carry out and analyze experiments/studies
  • Use of research databases for problem solving
  • Data analysis and statistics
  • How to create a project plan
  • How to create analyses of risk and potential for completing a scientific project
  • Technical reports, structure and contents
  • Philosophies of social science
  • Natural science versus social science methodologies
  • Action-based research - methodologies and philosophies

Teaching Methods

Project work

Form(s) of Assessment


Form(s) of Assessment (additional text)

  • Written exam (3 hours), counts 50%
  • Written exam (3 hours), counts 50%
  • Both exams must be passed

Grading Scale

Alphabetical Scale, A(best) – F (fail)

External/internal examiner

Part 1: external+ internal examiners

Part 2: Internal examiners

Re-sit examination

Ordinary re-sit examination

Examination support

English dictionary

Coursework Requirements

Completed essay (2)

Completed practical project

Teaching Materials

Arbnor, I. og B. Bjerke (2008) Methodology for Creating Business Knowledge  . London: Sage

Leedy, P. D. og J. E. Ormrod. Practical Research, -Planning and design  (8th ed.) Pearson Educational Int. ISBN: 0-13-124720-4

Additional literature, handed out or made available in Fronter.