Digital radiography and image optimization
2011-2012 - VIU8251 - 15 ECTS

Expected learning outcomes

The aim of the study programme is for the radiographer, and others with proper background, to develop further competence within digital imaging technology, image quality assessment and image optimization, and to stimulate him/her to aquire a critical attitude and a problem solving skills within the field. Emphasis will be placed on supplying the students with a technological and methodological knowledge which may form basis also for later skill developments.

After finalizing the programme the students shall:

- have developed their view on possibilities and limitations of digital imaging

- be able to assess the usefulness of image processing tools

- be able to assess clinical image quality criteria

- through electronic literature search and critical evaluation of findings, be able to acquire and properly use "evidence based knowledge”

- be able to evaluate the quality of the whole imaging chain: acquisition, transfer, archiving, retrieving, viewing, and the impact of the human observer as a decision maker

- enhanced ability to choose optimal exposure and image processing parameters, i.e. maximizing the image information extraction in combination with minimum dose

- have basic knowledge as to execute research and development within medical x-ray imaging, including choice of methods, presentation and discussion and of results

- have necessary competence for further gaining and assessment of new knowledge within medical imaging techniques


- basic introduction to the anatomy of digital images

- radiation physics and image formation (sampling and quantization)

- diagnostic requirements in projection radiography

- dose notions, European recommendations and guidelines, protocols

- detectors and image acquisition, preprocessing, compression and image formats

- basis image statistics (statistical distributions and measures, photon statistics, noise, geometric resolution and contrast)

- technical quality parameters (signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, contrast-detail, MTF, NPS, DQE)

- the quality limitations as a result of the anatomical background signal

- image viewing, histogram techniques (including LUTs), monitors

- viewing conditions (particularly ambient lighting), perception and the human eye

- image enhancement (filtering and convolutions)

- assessment of total image quality in relation to clinical, technical and operator conditions

- procedures, references and guidelines for digital radiography

- methods for operator evaluation (ROC-analysis, ..)

- proper choice of clinical image quality criteria, image optimization

- introduction to clinical reporting

- image analysis (ROI measurements, texture, feature extraction)

- basic image recognition: segmentation, and classification, computer assisted radiology

- image synthesis (image arithmetics, transforms, 3D imaging, image sequences)

Teaching Methods

Group works
Laboratory work
Project work

Teaching Methods (additional text)

The course program is organized with 3 tuition meetings during 6 months, each of 3-4 days duration

The tuition periods are lecture intensive. The teaching methods changes between theory, practical computer and radiographic imaging exercises. Between the meetings the students will be given compulsory work tasks. The course closes with a 2 days meeting for a final written examination, and the submission and presentation of the project group work.

Form(s) of Assessment

Written exam, 4 hours
Evaluation of Project(s)

Form(s) of Assessment (additional text)

Written examination counts for 50 %, evaluation of project report for 50%

Grading Scale

Alphabetical Scale, A(best) – F (fail)

External/internal examiner

External examiner evaluates every set of answers

Internal topic teachers evaluates the project reports and oral presentations of these

Re-sit examination

Next ordinary exam

Examination support

Electronic calculator without communication capabilities

Coursework Requirements

Minimum 80 % presence during tuition meetings

Submission of compulsory work tasks within the time limits given

Proper attendance in group project work, and oral presentation of this

Teaching Materials

List of literature will be available November 1. 2007 at the latest

Replacement course for

RAD 8021