Survey Adjustment Analysis
2010-2011 - GEO2151 - 10 ECTS


GEO1181 Basic Surveying


GEO1191 Basic Surveying 1 og GEO1201 Basic Surveying 2

On the basis of

GEO2281 Practical Land Surveying

Expected learning outcomes

On completion of this course, students will have acquired a good practical understanding of the processes involved in adjusting networks of observations of different types using the Least Squares Method.

Students will be able to:
- Carry out a Least Squares Adjustment of a set of observations
- Analyse the quality of the observations, of the available data, and of the results
- Use the standard Norwegian network adjustment software systems
- Use standard GPS-based network adjustment software systems
- Deliver appropriate project reports in accordance with current professional standards.


- Theory of Adjustment by the method of Least Squares
- Formation of Observation Equations in different situations
- Weighting of Observation Equations
- Techniques for the solution of large sets of linear equation, including the use of simple matrix algebra
- Detection of observational errors in control networks
- Statistics, reliability testing, quality control and analysis
- Reporting
- Land survey software systems "GEMINI", "GISLINE" and "Leica Geo Office".
- Analysis of Control Networks to develop transformation parameters
- Simple network simulation computations and analysis

Teaching Methods

Group works

Form(s) of Assessment

Oral exam, individually

Form(s) of Assessment (additional text)

  • Oral Exam, individually
  • Evaluation of Project(s) (4)

Grading Scale

Alphabetical Scale, A(best) – F (fail)

External/internal examiner

Delivered work is assessed by the responsible lecturer
External moderators regularly assist in reviewing content and evaluating arrangements for grading assessments.

Re-sit examination

By agreement with the responsible lecturer

Coursework Requirements


Teaching Materials

- Iliffe, J. & Lott, R. (2008). Datums and Map Projections for remote Sensing, GIS and Surveying. Scotland, UK: Whittles Publishing. (ISBN: 978-1-904445-47-0).
- Instrument og programvare manualer (oppdateres jevnlig på nett eller som innebygde systemhjelpfiler)
- HiG: Egne kompendier og notater i utjevningslære, analyse, datum, transformasjoner (oppdateres jevnlig)
- Statens kartverk (2005). Geodatastandarden (oppdateres ved
- Statens kartverk (2001). Geodatastandarden, grunnlagsnett (oppdateres ved
- Statens kartverk (2005). Satellittbasert posisjonsbestemmelse (oppdateres ved
- Statens kartverk (1999). Stedfesting av eiendoms- og råderettsgrenser (oppdateres ved
- Statens kartverk (2004). Koordinatbasert referansesystem (oppdateres ved

Additional information

This subject is included in the following courses of study:
- Bachelor of Geomatics
- One-Year Course in Land Surveying