Survey Adjustment Analysis
- GEO2151 - 10 ECTS


GEO1141 Land Surveying Instruments and Computations

On the basis of

GEO2241 - Practical Land Surveying

Expected learning outcomes

On completion of this course, students will have acquired a good practical understanding of the processes involved in adjusting networks of observations of different types using the Least Squares Method.

Students will be able to:
- Carry out a Least Squares Adjustment of a set of observations
- Analyse the quality of the observations, of the available data, and of the results
- Use the standard Norwegian network adjustment software systems
- Use standard GPS-based network adjustment software systems
- Deliver appropriate project reports in accordance with current professional standards.


- Theory of Adjustment by the method of Least Squares
- Formation of Observation Equations in different situations
- Weighting of Observation Equations
- Techniques for the solution of large sets of linear equation, including the use of simple matrix algebra
- Detection of observational errors in control networks
- Statistics, reliability testing, quality control and analysis
- Reporting
- Land survey software systems “GEMINI" and “GISLINE".
- Analysis of Control Networks to develop transformation parameters
- Simple network simulation computations and analysis

Teaching Methods

Group works

Form(s) of Assessment

Oral exam, individually
Evaluation of Project(s)

Form(s) of Assessment (additional text)

  • Oral Exam, individually
  • Evaluation of Project(s) (4)

Grading Scale

Alphabetical Scale, A(best) – F (fail)

External/internal examiner

Delivered work is assessed by the responsible lecturer
External moderators regularly assist in reviewing content and evaluating arrangements for grading assessments.

Re-sit examination

By agreement with the responsible lecturer

Coursework Requirements


Teaching Materials

- Statens kartverk. (2002). Geodatastandarden. Hønefoss: Statens kartverk. (oppdateres jevnlig på nett)
- Statens kartverk. (1999). Stedfesting av eiendoms- og råderettsgrenser. Hønefoss: Statens kartverk. (oppdateres jevnlig på nett)
- Instrument and software manuals (regularly updated by WWW or as system help files)

Additional information

This subject is included in the following courses of study:
- Bachelor of Geomatics
- One-Year Course in Land Surveying